Mayan civilization, Chichen Itza
The history of Chichen Itza can be traced back to the classic period of Mayan civilization , running between 250 BC through AD 850. Geographically, it ranged from Mexico through Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador.
During the first millennium AD, the Mayans reached levels of civilization rivalling those of ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome.
They were superb astronomers, architect/builders, athletes and mathematicians.
But for some unfathomable reason they never discovered the wheel.
In times when Chichen Itza flourished as a city, the Mayas formed a highly sophisticated society. Their elite did remarkable work in astronomy, mathematics, engineering and architecture, while the rest provided manpower to execute the plans.
Largest of Mayan cities, Chichen Itza was started around 400 A.D., abandoned and returned to several times before the Toltecs arrived in 987 A.D.
The aggressive Toltecs conquered the Itzas, introduced them to the practice of human sacrifice and with their labor rebuilt the city as a religious centre.
Everyone moved out by the thirteenth century, so when the Spaniards came in the 1500s they found crumbling buildings being devoured by the greedy jungle.
A New York lawyer rediscovered them in 1842, following which an influx of amateur archeologists destroyed some.
Real restoration and reconstruction by the Carnegie Institute and Mexican government was begun in 1922, and continued for 20 years.
Temple of Kukulkan at Chichen Itza Mexico
The first thing that comes to mind when entering Chichen Itza is the Kukulcan temple, actually a 24-meter pyramid with sides 20 meters long.
It has 4 scales with 91 stairs per platform (4 multiplied by 91 plus 1 is equal to 365), which means that this object is a kind of key of time. Moreover, each side has 52 levels and that number coincides with their 52-year space cycle. They had a religious and secular calendar that every 52 years were equated and marked the end of one and the beginning of a new period.
On March 21st and September 23rd, the pyramid makes a shadow that reminds us od Kukulkan , that is a snake.
On both sides of the temple there are staircase snake stones processed in stone.
Mayan ritual of sacrifice
At the top is the figure of a man in a half sitting position with a palm of his hand in the middle of which there is a hole. In it, in fact , an altar , the hearts of the sacrificed people were places. It is believed that this figure was a link between people and gods (it carried messages and gifts that people were referring to the gods).
In the immediate vicinity there is a well where, probably, various rituals were performed. The well is really large, its diameter is 60 meters, and 6 to 12 meters depth. Inside were found precious objects, but also skeletons of the sacrificed Maya to the god Chuck. Skeletons of babies were found too!
This monstrous sacrifice is made in connection with the Mayan determination of the “planning” of the population, and if that number has risen above the ‘plan’ , a certain number of babies were thrown into a well!
Chichen Itza also has one object , 13 meters high , with very specific shape. Namely, it remind us very much of today’s observatories, as opposed to the fact that at the time there were no telescopes as we know it. Or , there were?